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Everyday Science By Akram Kashmiri: A Comprehensive Guide for Competitive Examinations




Science is not only a specialized field of study that requires years of training and research, but also a way of understanding the world around us that affects our daily lives. Everyday science is the application of scientific knowledge and methods to explain, predict and solve problems that we encounter in our personal, social and professional spheres. Everyday science helps us to make informed decisions, improve our health and well-being, protect our environment and enhance our creativity.




Everyday Science By Akram Kashmiri.pdf



One of the best sources for learning about everyday science is the book "Every Day Science for Competitive Examinations" by Dr. Muhammad Akram Kashmiri. Dr. Kashmiri is a renowned scholar and professor of chemistry at the Government College University in Lahore, Pakistan. He has written this book with the aim of providing a comprehensive, concise and updated overview of the basic concepts and principles of everyday science for students who are preparing for various competitive examinations such as CSS, PMS, PCS, NTS, etc. The book covers a wide range of topics from astronomy to zoology, from physics to psychology, from history to ethics. It also includes multiple choice questions (MCQs) at the end of each chapter to test the reader's understanding and retention.


In this article, we will summarize the main contents and highlights of each chapter of Dr. Kashmiri's book. We will also provide some examples of how everyday science can be applied to real-life situations. We hope that this article will inspire you to read the book in full and explore the fascinating world of everyday science.


Chapter 1: The Universe




The universe is the totality of everything that exists in space and time. It includes all forms of matter, energy, radiation, forces, laws and phenomena. Scientists have different theories about how the universe began, how it is structured and how it will end. Some of the most widely accepted theories are:


  • The Big Bang Theory: This theory states that the universe originated from a singularity (a point of infinite density and temperature) about 13.8 billion years ago. It then expanded rapidly in a process called inflation, creating space, time, matter and energy. It continues to expand today at an accelerating rate.



  • The Standard Model: This theory describes the fundamental particles (such as quarks, leptons and bosons) that make up matter and the forces (such as gravity, electromagnetism, strong nuclear force and weak nuclear force) that govern their interactions. It also explains how matter can be converted into energy (such as in nuclear reactions) and vice versa (such as in particle accelerators).



  • The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB): This is the oldest and most distant radiation that we can detect in the universe. It is a remnant of the electromagnetic radiation that filled the universe shortly after the Big Bang, when it was very hot and dense. It has a temperature of about 2.7 Kelvin (K) and a spectrum of black body radiation. It provides evidence for the Big Bang theory, the inflation theory and the structure of the universe.



The universe contains billions of galaxies, each consisting of millions to trillions of stars and other celestial bodies. Our galaxy is called the Milky Way, and it has a spiral shape with a central bulge and four main arms. Our solar system is located in one of the arms, about 25,000 light-years from the galactic center. A light-year is the distance that light travels in one year, which is about 9.46 trillion kilometers.


Our solar system consists of eight planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune), five dwarf planets (Pluto, Ceres, Eris, Makemake and Haumea), hundreds of moons, thousands of asteroids and comets, and countless dust and gas particles. The sun is the central star of our solar system, and it accounts for 99.8% of its mass. It is a medium-sized yellow star with a diameter of about 1.4 million kilometers and a surface temperature of about 5800 K. It produces energy by nuclear fusion, converting hydrogen into helium in its core.


The moon is the only natural satellite of the earth, and it orbits around it at an average distance of about 384,000 kilometers. It has a diameter of about 3,474 kilometers and a surface temperature ranging from -173C to 127C. It has no atmosphere and no life. It shows different phases depending on its position relative to the earth and the sun. It also causes tides on the earth due to its gravitational pull.


The stars are luminous spheres of plasma (ionized gas) that emit light and heat due to nuclear fusion in their cores. They vary in size, color, brightness, temperature and lifespan depending on their mass and composition. The apparent brightness of a star as seen from the earth is called its magnitude, and it depends on its intrinsic brightness (luminosity) and its distance from the earth. The color of a star indicates its surface temperature, with blue stars being hotter than red stars. The lifespan of a star depends on how fast it consumes its fuel (hydrogen), with massive stars being shorter-lived than low-mass stars.


Some examples of everyday science related to the universe are:


  • Using telescopes to observe distant objects in space



  • Using satellites to communicate, navigate and monitor weather



  • Using solar panels to convert sunlight into electricity



  • Using calendars and clocks to measure time based on the earth's rotation and orbit



  • Using astrology to predict personality traits and events based on the positions of celestial bodies



Chapter 2: The Earth




The earth is the third planet from the sun and the only one known to support life. It has a diameter of about 12,742 kilometers and a mass of about 5.97 x 10^24 kilograms. It has four main layers: the crust, the mantle, the outer core and the inner core. The crust is the outermost layer, composed of solid rocks and minerals. It is divided into two types: continental crust (thicker and less dense) and oceanic crust (thinner and more dense). The mantle is the thickest layer, composed of hot semi-solid rocks that flow slowly due to convection currents. The outer core is composed of liquid iron and nickel that generate the earth's magnetic field due to their rotation. The inner core is composed of solid iron and nickel that withstand high pressure and temperature.


The earth rotates around its axis once every 24 hours, creating day and night cycles. It also orbits around the sun once every 365.25 days, creating seasons due to its tilt (23.5 degrees) relative to its orbital plane. The earth's orbit is slightly elliptical, meaning that it is closer to the sun at some points (perihelion) than at others (aphelion). This causes variations in the amount of solar radiation received by different regions of the earth.


The atmosphere is the layer of gases that surrounds the earth and protects it from harmful radiation and meteoroids. It also regulates the climate by trapping heat (greenhouse effect) and distributing moisture (water cycle). The atmosphere consists of five layers: the troposphere (the lowest layer where weather occurs), the stratosphere (where ozone layer absorbs ultraviolet rays), the mesosphere (where met Continuing the article: Chapter 2: The Earth




The earth is the third planet from the sun and the only one known to support life. It has a diameter of about 12,742 kilometers and a mass of about 5.97 x 10^24 kilograms. It has four main layers: the crust, the mantle, the outer core and the inner core. The crust is the outermost layer, composed of solid rocks and minerals. It is divided into two types: continental crust (thicker and less dense) and oceanic crust (thinner and more dense). The mantle is the thickest layer, composed of hot semi-solid rocks that flow slowly due to convection currents. The outer core is composed of liquid iron and nickel that generate the earth's magnetic field due to their rotation. The inner core is composed of solid iron and nickel that withstand high pressure and temperature.


The earth rotates around its axis once every 24 hours, creating day and night cycles. It also orbits around the sun once every 365.25 days, creating seasons due to its tilt (23.5 degrees) relative to its orbital plane. The earth's orbit is slightly elliptical, meaning that it is closer to the sun at some points (perihelion) than at others (aphelion). This causes variations in the amount of solar radiation received by different regions of the earth.


The atmosphere is the layer of gases that surrounds the earth and protects it from harmful radiation and meteoroids. It also regulates the climate by trapping heat (greenhouse effect) and distributing moisture (water cycle). The atmosphere consists of five layers: the troposphere (the lowest layer where weather occurs), the stratosphere (where ozone layer absorbs ultraviolet rays), the mesosphere (where meteors burn up), the thermosphere (where auroras occur) and the exosphere (the outermost layer where satellites orbit). The atmosphere is composed mainly of nitrogen (78%), oxygen (21%) and argon (0.9%), with traces of other gases such as carbon dioxide, water vapor and methane.


The oceans are the large bodies of salt water that cover about 71% of the earth's surface. They are divided into five major basins: the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Arctic and Southern Oceans. The oceans contain about 1.35 billion cubic kilometers of water, which is about 97% of all the water on earth. The oceans have an average depth of about 3,688 meters and a maximum depth of about 10,994 meters in the Mariana Trench. The oceans are home to millions of species of plants and animals, from microscopic plankton to gigantic whales.


The continents are the large landmasses that rise above sea level on the earth's surface. There are seven continents: Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Europe, Australia and Antarctica. The continents are composed mainly of granite rocks that are lighter and thicker than the basalt rocks of the oceanic crust. The continents have an average elevation of about 840 meters and a maximum elevation of about 8,848 meters at Mount Everest. The continents are also divided into smaller regions called countries, which have their own governments, cultures and languages.


The natural resources are the materials and substances that are found in nature and can be used by humans for various purposes. Some examples of natural resources are minerals, metals, fossil fuels, water, soil, air, plants and animals. Natural resources can be classified into two types: renewable and non-renewable. Renewable resources are those that can be replenished or regenerated by natural processes within a reasonable time frame, such as solar energy, wind energy, hydroelectric power, biomass, geothermal energy and tidal energy. Non-renewable resources are those that cannot be replenished or regenerated by natural processes within a reasonable time frame, such as coal, oil, natural gas, uranium, gold, silver and diamonds.


Some examples of everyday science related to the earth are:


  • Using maps and GPS to locate places and navigate routes



  • Using thermometers and barometers to measure temperature and pressure



  • Using compasses and magnets to find directions



  • Using recycling and composting to reduce waste and conserve resources



  • Using gardening and farming to grow food and flowers



Continuing the article: Chapter 3: Life on Earth




Life on Earth is the result of a long and complex evolutionary process that began with the origin of the first cell about 3.5-4.1 billion years ago. Since then, life has diversified into countless forms and adapted to various environments. Scientists use different methods and criteria to study and classify life on Earth, such as morphology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, genetics and molecular biology.


The origin of life on Earth is still a matter of debate and research among scientists. There are several hypotheses and experiments that attempt to explain how the first cell emerged from prebiotic (non-living) molecules under certain conditions. Some of the most influential hypotheses are:


  • The primordial soup hypothesis: This hypothesis states that life originated in a warm ocean that contained a mixture of organic molecules (such as amino acids, nucleotides, sugars and lipids) that were produced by abiotic (non-biological) processes such as lightning, ultraviolet radiation and volcanic activity. These molecules then combined and reacted to form more complex molecules (such as proteins, nucleic acids and membranes) that eventually gave rise to the first cell.



  • The hydrothermal vent hypothesis: This hypothesis states that life originated in the deep sea near hydrothermal vents, which are openings in the ocean floor that release hot water and minerals. These vents provided a source of energy and chemical gradients that facilitated the synthesis and concentration of organic molecules. These molecules then assembled into membrane-bound structures (such as protocells or microspheres) that exhibited some properties of life.



  • The panspermia hypothesis: This hypothesis states that life originated elsewhere in the universe and was transported to Earth by meteorites, comets or other celestial bodies. These bodies carried organic molecules or even living cells that survived the harsh conditions of space and impact. These molecules or cells then adapted to the Earth's environment and evolved into different forms of life.



The evolution of life on Earth is the result of natural selection, which is the process by which organisms with favorable traits survive and reproduce more than those with unfavorable traits. Natural selection is driven by genetic variation, which is the difference in DNA sequences among individuals of a population. Genetic variation can arise by mutation (random changes in DNA), recombination (mixing of DNA during sexual reproduction) or gene transfer (movement of DNA between different organisms). Genetic variation provides the raw material for evolution, while natural selection shapes it according to environmental factors.


The diversity of life on Earth is the outcome of millions of years of evolution and speciation. Speciation is the process by which new species arise from existing ones due to reproductive isolation. Reproductive isolation can occur by geographic barriers (such as mountains, rivers or oceans), behavioral differences (such as mating preferences or rituals), or genetic incompatibilities (such as chromosomal rearrangements or hybrid sterility). Speciation leads to the formation of distinct groups of organisms that share common ancestry and characteristics.


The classification of life on Earth is the attempt to organize and name the different groups of organisms based on their evolutionary relationships and similarities. Scientists use a system called taxonomy, which is the science of naming and classifying living things. Taxonomy uses a hierarchical scheme that ranks organisms into different levels or categories called taxa (singular: taxon). The most widely used taxonomic system today is based on eight main levels: domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species. Each level is more specific than the previous one, and each taxon includes all the taxa below it.


The table below shows an example of how humans are classified according to this system:


Level Taxon Name Meaning --- --- --- --- Domain Eukarya Eukaryotes Organisms with cells that have a nucleus Kingdom Animalia Animals Multicellular organisms that ingest food Phylum Chordata Chordates Animals with a notochord (a flexible rod) at some stage of development Class Mammalia Mammals Animals with hair and mammary glands Order Primates Primates Animals with opposable thumbs and large brains Family Hominidae Hominids Primates with bipedal locomotion and complex social behavior Genus Homo Humans Hominids with a large cranial capacity and language ability Species Homo sapiens Modern humans The only living species of the genus Homo Some examples of everyday science related to life on Earth are:


  • Using DNA tests to determine paternity, ancestry or health risks



  • Using antibiotics to treat bacterial infections



  • Using vaccines to prevent viral diseases



  • Using biotechnology to produce genetically modified crops and animals



  • Using conservation to protect endangered species and habitats



Continuing the article: Chapter 4: Matter and Energy




Matter and energy are two fundamental concepts in physics that are closely related. Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space. Energy is the capacity to do work or cause change. Matter and energy can be converted into each other according to Einstein's famous equation: E = mc^2, where E is energy, m is mass and c is the speed of light.


Matter can exist in three main states: solid, liquid and gas. These states depend on the arrangement and movement of the particles (atoms or molecules) that make up matter. In a solid, the particles are tightly packed and vibrate in fixed positions. In a liquid, the particles are loosely packed and slide past each other. In a gas, the particles are far apart and move randomly. Matter can change from one state to another by adding or removing heat, which affects the kinetic energy of the particles.


Energy can exist in many forms, such as kinetic, potential, thermal, chemical, nuclear, electrical, magnetic, sound and light. These forms of energy can be transferred or transformed from one to another by various processes. For example, a moving car has kinetic energy that can be transferred to thermal energy when it brakes. A battery has chemical energy that can be transformed into electrical energy when it powers a device. A nuclear reactor has nuclear energy that can be transformed into thermal energy when it splits atoms.


Nuclear phenomena are processes that involve changes in the nuclei of atoms. These processes can release or absorb huge amounts of energy and produce new elements or isotopes. There are two main types of nuclear phenomena: nuclear fission and nuclear fusion. Nuclear fission is the splitting of a large nucleus into smaller nuclei and neutrons. This process releases energy and can be used to generate electricity in nuclear power plants or to create explosions in nuclear weapons. Nuclear fusion is the joining of two small nuclei into a larger nucleus and a proton. This process releases even more energy than fission and can be used to power stars like the sun or to create thermonuclear weapons.


Chemical phenomena are processes that involve changes in the arrangement of atoms or molecules. These processes can release or absorb energy and produce new substances with different properties. There are two main types of chemical phenomena: chemical reactions and physical changes. Chemical reactions are processes that involve breaking or forming chemical bonds between atoms or molecules. These processes produce new substances with different compositions and properties than the original ones. For example, when hydrogen gas reacts with oxygen gas, water is produced. Physical changes are processes that involve changing the state or shape of a substance without changing its composition or properties. For example, when water freezes into ice or melts into liquid.


Electrical phenomena are


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